Cancer is a well known deadly disease that is cause due to the inability of some uncontrollably growing cells to die. More than 100 types of cancer have been identified till death,classified on the basis of the type of the intially affected cancer. Cancer treatmentwill never be a single "cure for cancer" anymore than there will be a single treatment for all infectious disease.
Cancer usually develops due to mutation in the gens of the cell making it. The cell goes on multiplying and does not die as it had to. Finally, it starts forming a mass. These mutation are caused by many different stimuli like x-rays, radiation, different chemical etc.
Cancer treatment can be treated by surgery,chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, Targeted therapies, Hormonal therapy, Angiogenesis inhibitors or other methods.
The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient (performance status).
In theory, non-hematological cancers can be cured if entirely removed by surgery, but this is not always possible. When the cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery, complete surgical excision is usually impossible. In some instances, surgery must be delayed until other treatments are able to shrink the tumor.
The goal of radiation therapy is to damage as many cancer cells as possible, while limiting harm to nearby healthy tissue. Hence, it is given in many fractions, allowing healthy tissue to recover between fractions.
Chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division in various possible ways, e.g. with the duplication of DNA or the separation of newly formed chromosomes.
This constitutes the use of agents specific for the deregulated proteins of cancer cells. Small molecule targeted therapy drugs are generally inhibitors of enzymatic domains on mutated, over expressed, or otherwise critical proteins within the cancer cell. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a ternary treatment for cancer involving a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and light (often using lasers). PDT can be used as treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or lung cancer; PDT can also be useful in removing traces of malignant tissue after surgical removal of large tumors.
Cancer immunotherapy refers to a diverse set of therapeutic strategies designed to induce the patient's own immune system to fight the tumor
Removing or blocking estrogen or testosterone is often an important additional treatment. In certain cancers, administration of hormone agonists, such as progestogens may be therapeutically beneficial.
Angiogenesis inhibitors prevent the extensive growth of blood vessels (angiogenesis) that tumors require to survive. Some, such as bevacizumab, have been approved and are in clinical use. One of the main problems with anti-angiogenesis drugs is that many factors stimulate blood vessel growth in cells normal or cancerous.
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